The spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation in Dongxiang County is uneven, and the domestic water resources are relatively scarce, which is a major bottleneck restricting the development of the planting industry. However, the mutton sheep industry in Dongxiang has been well developed and is now a pillar industry in this area. In order to clarify the development advantages and sustainable development potential of the mutton sheep industry in Dongxiang County, through literature review and field surveys, analysis is conducted on the development status, advantages, and key factors for sustainable development of the mutton sheep industry in Dongxiang County. Results showed that the per capita share of mutton and the output of mutton sheep determine the production power of the fattening mutton sheep industry, which is an important foundation for the development of the mutton sheep industry. The number of mutton sheep in stock determines the production performance of the fattening mutton sheep population and is the key to the sustainable development of the mutton sheep industry. Forage supply and technological services are the indispensable supporting links for the development of the mutton sheep industry. Harvesting and processing, logistics and distribution, brand marketing and other related service industries are high value-added links in the mutton sheep industry. The above highlights the development advantages of the mutton sheep industry in Dongxiang County, indicating that the development of the mutton sheep industry in Dongxiang County is feasible and an inevitable trend for the Rural Revitalization and development at the countylevel.