Gansu Province is China's primary potato producing region. Exploring the suitability of potato cultivation is of great significance for optimizing the layout of China's potato industry. Thus, this study investigated the potato farming region in Gansu Province, examined factors such as water, heat, light, and other meteorological resources, as well as site conditions and physical and chemical soil characteristics. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 26.0 and GS+. And the Arcgis 10.8 ordinary kriging interpolation was used for interpolation, the Raphael's method was applied to construct an evaluation indicator system for suitability evaluation of potato production areas. Results showed that the highly suitable, suitable, barely suitable and unsuitable areas for potato production in Gansu were 988 600 ha, 2.1336 million ha, 1.20 million ha and 887 500 ha, respectively, corresponding to 18.98%, 40.95%, 23.03% and 17.04%of the Gansu Province's total cultivated area, respectively. Several key factors influenced the distribution of potato suitability in Gansu Province, namely altitude, annual precipitation and annual average temperature.