To understand the distribution pattern of soil selenium content in Pingchuan District, Baiyin, and to explore the influencing factors of selenium content in soil, a total of 59 soil samples and 36 edible crop samples in Pingchuan District, Baiyin were collected. Through testing and analyzing the total selenium content and soil chemical properties (lead, mercury, cadmium, pH, organic matter, available silicon, available boron, available copper, available zinc, available iron, and available manganese), and the total selenium content of edible parts in crops, the characteristics and influencing factors of total selenium contents in soil and crops in Pingchuan District, Baiyin were studied. The results indicated that the average soil total selenium in Pingchuan was 0.29 mg/kg which was 45.0% higher than the average soil total selenium content in Gansu Province. Moreover, the parent material of selenium rich soil was alluvial and proluvial deposits. Soil total selenium content had significant positive relationship with soil organic matter(R2 = 0.32*) and available silicon content(R2 = 0.35**). The total selenium contents of various agricultural products in Pingchuan District was in the order of sesame> goji berries > quinoa > Jerusalem artichoke > corn > potato. There were regional differences in soil selenium content in Pingchuan District with higher levels in the northwest than that in the southeast, and higher levels in irrigated areas than that in arid areas. The soil parent material, organic matter content, and available silicon content were the main factors determining soil selenium enrichment, and the enrichment coefficient was the main reason for significant differences in the average total selenium content of various agricultural products.